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## What is Absolute & Relative cell Reference?

#### Relative Cell Refrence

Cell that changes his reference when we copy and paste, or drag a formula.

A | B | C | D | |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Relative Refrence | |||

2 | 2 | 1 | 2 | =A2*B2 |

3 | 2 | 2 | 4 | =A3*B3 |

4 | 2 | 3 | 6 | =A4*B4 |

5 | 2 | 4 | 8 | =A5*B5 |

6 | 2 | 5 | 10 | =A6*B6 |

#### Absolute Cell Refrence

Cell that remains constant when we copy and paste, or drag a formula.

A | B | C | D | |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Absolute Refrence | |||

2 | 2 | 1 | 2 | =$A$2*B2 |

3 | 2 | 4 | =$A$2*B3 | |

4 | 3 | 6 | =$A$2*B4 | |

5 | 4 | 8 | =$A$2*B5 | |

6 | 5 | 10 | =$A$2*B6 |

**Lets follow the bellow example to further understand the Relative reference in a better way: **

- In Range A2:A9 write A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H
- In Range B1:J1 write 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
- Now in cell B2 write the formula as =A2&B1 and then drag the same till B2:J9. You will see that, apart from cell B2 we didn’t get the desired result in the rest of the cells.
- Now in cell B2 let’s put the formula as: =$A2&B1 and then drag the same till B2:J9. You will see that in a first vertical row we got the desire result but we didn’t get the desired result in the rest of the cells.
- Now in cell B2 let’s put the formula as: =$A2&B$1 and then drag the same till B2:J9. You will see that we have got the desired result in all the cells.

**Note:** Using formula in B2 we want the output as: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A9 (Horizontally) and A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1 (Vertically)

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | |

2 | A | =$A2&B$1 | A2 | A3 | A4 | A5 | A6 | A7 | A8 | A9 |

3 | B | B1 | B2 | B3 | B4 | B5 | B6 | B7 | B8 | B9 |

4 | C | C1 | C2 | C3 | C4 | C5 | C6 | C7 | C8 | C9 |

5 | D | D1 | D2 | D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 |

6 | E | E1 | E2 | E3 | E4 | E5 | E6 | E7 | E8 | E9 |

7 | F | F1 | F2 | F3 | F4 | F5 | F6 | F7 | F8 | F9 |

8 | G | G1 | G2 | G3 | G4 | G5 | G6 | G7 | G8 | G9 |

9 | H | H1 | H2 | H3 | H4 | H5 | H6 | H7 | H8 | H9 |

Cell Refrence | Description |
---|---|

$A1 | Dollar sign at the beginning will change the row reference and the column reference will be constant (Press function key F4 thrice to get the $ sign at the beginning) |

A$1 | Dollar sign in between will change the column reference and the row reference will be constant (Press function key F4 twice to get the $ sign sign in between) |

$A$1 | Dollar sign at both the end will keep row reference and the column reference constant (Press function key F4 to get the doller sign at both the end) |